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Learning Sanskrit from home: Starting Point

Learning Sanskrit from home: Starting Point

To learn any language, we have to start with vowels and consonants, in sanskrit collectively they are called as वर्णमाला  (varnamala). Let me list out all वर्णमाला of sanskrit here.

स्वर (Svara)

अ  आ   इ   ई   उ   ऊ   ऋ   ॠ   लृ   ॡ  ए    ओ  औ  अं  अः

व्यञ्जन (Vyanjana)

कण्ठय Gutturals

 क्

 ख्

 ग्

 घ्

 ङ्

 

तालव्य Palatals

 च्

 छ्

 ज्

 झ्

 ञ्

 

मूर्धन्य Linguals

 ट्

 ठ्

 ड्

 ढ्

 ण्

 

दन्तय Dentals

 त्

 थ्

 द्

 ध्

 न्

 

ओष्ठय Labials

 प्

 फ् 

 ब् 

 भ् 

 म् 

 

अन्तःस्थ Semi Vowel

 य्

 र् 

 ल् 

 व् 

 

 

Sibilant

 श् 

 ष्

 स्

   

 

Aspirate 

 ह्

 

 

In sanskrit the most important thing is the way we pronounce the characters, also there is more to learn about these वर्णमाला (varnamala). 

Pure स्वर (svara) (vowels) in sanskrita are of two types Short Vowels and Long Vowels, and the pure vyanjanas ( consonants ) are represented with a halant symbol  (्) . Still there are lot more to learn about अनुस्वारः (Anusvara) and  विसर्गः (visarga).

So this is the starting point for learning Sanskrit. I request to download following android mobile application which will be the starting point for learning sanskrit. These mobile applications helps you to learn sanskrit at home.

Android and iOS mobile Application for Sanskrit Learning For Beginners

Sanskrit for beginners iOS mobile application: Download – https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/learn-sanskrit-alphabets/id819321366?mt=8

Sanskrit for beginners android mobile application : Download –https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.vyoma.baalaamodinipremium.Varnamala&hl=en

Read More About Sanskrit and download other related mobile applications for sanskrit

Why Sanskrit : http://knowledge-cess.com/sanskrit-worlds-oldest-language/

Starting point for learning sanskrit : http://knowledge-cess.com/learning-sanskrit-starting-point/

Sanskrit a perfect language : http://knowledge-cess.com/sanskrita-vyakarana-separation-distinctionanalysis-explanation/

Sanskrita Vyakarana : separation, distinction,analysis, explanation

Sanskrita Vyakarana : separation, distinction,analysis, explanation

Sanskrit is called as a perfect language, an unambiguous language and hence NASA preferred it for Artificial Intelligence. But why so ? How it is different from any other language in the world? Why it is called as a most scientific language? What is so unique in sanskrit language ?

To answer all the above questions, we have to really look into the vyakarana in sanskrit. Though I don’t have enough knowledge in sanskrit, I am writing these articles after exploring a little bit about sanskrit with the help of few online courses of sanskrit ( Vyoma Linguistic Labs : Learn Sanskrit From home )

Vyakarana in Sanskrit:

In english if I say Read it is a just a word and you can not give any more explanation for that, is there any logic behind formation of this word ? Is there any explanation for the word Read‘ or ‘Reading ? Definitely we don’t have any answer for this question.

In sanskrit there is nothing which has no explanation, there is a logic behind formation of each and every word. Let me take simple example

  1. There is a word पठति in sanskrit, which means Read but as I said above for every word there is an explanation, let us see how this word formed

पठति  = पठ्‌ + + ति 

पठ्‌ – धातुः [अर्थं निर्दिशति]

अ – विकरणप्रत्ययः [गणं निर्दिशति]

ति – तिङ्‌प्रत्ययः [लकारं निर्दिशति] |

2. भ्वादिः (प्रथमः गणः = भू इत्यादयः धातवः; “भवतिइत्यादीनि क्रियापदानि) | यस्य गणस्य आदौ भू-धातुः अस्ति, सः भ्वादिगणः |

विकरण प्रत्ययः शप्‌ → अ

उदाखाद्‌ (खादति), पठ्‌ (पठति), क्रीड्‌ (क्रीडति), वद्‌ (वदति); शुच्‌ (शोचति), वृत्‌ (वर्तते); जि (जयति), स्रु (स्रवति), हृ (हरति)

Hope these simple examples help us to understand how rich the sanskrit language is. All I am trying to tell here is learn sanskrit, we have plenty of online courses, videos, mobile applications but I prefer the following pointers because these mobile apps for sanskrit are really very nice.

Online tutorials For Learning Sanskrit

Sanskrit Learning Online Courses : http://www.sanskritfromhome.in/

Sanskrit Learning YouTube Videos : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCp5mvCwXR-drTRyzNUUjdZg

Sanskrit Learning Android Mobile Applications : https://play.google.com/store/apps/developer?id=Vyoma_labs&hl=en

For CBSC Students : www.cbsesanskrit.com

Read More about Sanskrit : Interesting Facts About Sanskrit

Sanskrit : World’s Oldest Language

Sanskrit : World’s Oldest Language

Being a Bharatiya, I am proud to write this article on sanskrit, Swami Vivekananda said one day Bharat Mata would be Jagat Guru”, how true it is ! We taught to the world how to speak, we taught to the world how to write, our Vedas,upanishads has references to most of the modern scientific inventions, We knew solar system, galaxies thousands of years ago and what not ?. Every Indian is proud about what our country has given to the world. 

I must say the best thing among all our contribution is sanskrit, There is lot lot to know about sanskrit, I just started learning and I am enjoying. I thought to share my understanding and importance of sanskrit in couple of articles.

How old Sanskrit is ?

Vedic sanskrit is being the oldest, dating back to as early as the early second millennium BCE. This qualifies Rigvedic Sanskrit as the oldest. Classical Sanskrit is the standard register as laid out in the grammar of Pāṇini, around the fourth century BCE. 

Interesting Facts About Sanskrit Language:

  1. Improvements in Concentration Level : learning sanskrit and speaking in sanskrit language improves our concentration level, If we take current generation, our kids has concentration of maximum 3min – 4min. But study has revealed that (an experiment conducted by Vyoma Labs Banglore ) a student learning sanskrit and speaking in sanskrit has gained concentration level upto 15min – 20min.
  2. As Medicine :  Research has proven that probability of Alzheimer disease is less if sanskrit is being used for speaking.
  3. Brain Gym : While speaking in sanskrit our both hemisphere of brain will be used which is a great exercise for your brain ( reference : Brains of verbal memory specialists show anatomical differences in language, memory and visual systems ).
  4. If English language has 25million words, sanskrit has 105million+ words, in fact lots and lots of Vedic scriptures have lost due to many reasons, so we can not give exact number.
  5. Sanskrit is not just a plain language like any other language, it is logical and mathematics involved within it Example : Just see how the words in sanskrit are formed, it is called as vyakarana (व्याकरणम्‌ )
    .
  6. NASA looking at sanskrit for their work on artificial intelligence – (Ref : NASAKnowledge Representation in Sanskrit and Artificial Intelligence )
  7. NASA wish to work with sanskrit scholars – (Ref : http://www.ibtl.in/news/international/1815/nasa-to-echo-sanskrit-in-space-website-confirms-its-mission-sanskrit/ )
  8. There is evidence that Pāṇini’s work in this area influenced modern linguists like de Saussure and Chomsky.

Well the list continues and I am still collecting lot of data on sanskrit, but don’t you think these interesting points motivate you to start learning sanskrit ?

Definitely it is great to find a very good Guru to learn sanskrit, but you can quickly start your learning sanskrit using these mobile apps and video links. Currently I felt these sanskrit learning mobile applications are really great for me to start.

Best Mobile Applications for Learning Sanskrit

Sanskrit Alphabets in Android Mobile : https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.vyoma.baalaamodinipremium.Varnamala&hl=en

Learning Sanskrit Verbs : https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.vyoma.kriyapadaani

Using Sanskrit Vocabulary : https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.vyoma.padajatham&hl=en

Learning Sanskrit for Kids : Stories & Rhymes in Sanskrit – https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.vyoma.baalaamodinipremium.kathaah&hl=en

And there are many more : https://play.google.com/store/apps/developer?id=Vyoma_labs&hl=en

 

Father Of Mass Market GPS : Sanjai Kohli

Father Of Mass Market GPS : Sanjai Kohli

You definitely might have used Google Maps, Whatsapp location sharing feature and any other location sharing mobile application, yeah definitely its a cool feature in smart phones and hence they are so called smart ? 🙂

but there is a man behind these popular GPS enabled devices who made it , Sanjai Kohli an Indian who worked on Mass Market GPS system, he is called as Father Of Mass Market GPS.

US Defense and Work on GPS

Sanjai started working in aerospace companies after completing his masters in US, during that time he was assigned a task where he suppose to add intelligence in bombs dropped from planes, in 1980’s 90 % of the bombs hit the unintended targets, Sanjai worked on a guided GPS systems, He and his team successfully completed the assigned task and all the US military weapons used the technology.

Sanjai Kohli

Sanjai Kohli

in 1993 GPS was being used in Tokyo to navigate in Cars, but because of many issues they never use to work properly, Sanjai started working on it and to make it commercialize. He setup a company SiRF by seeing the great opportunities, they reinvented the signal processing physics to reduce the cost and size.and increase power, resulting in tens of thousands of dollars of signal processing/communication equipment to reside in a single silicon chip. The chip was 200 times more capable than those used in the Japanese cars and was available at a fraction of the cost.” with SiRF. And the rest as they say is history. By 2006, 80% of GPS devices ran on SiRF chips. At its peak SiRF had a market capitalization of $3 billion.

With his great work, Kohli has been short-listed for the European Inventor Award (to be announced on April 28) instituted by the European Patent Office and the European Commission.

Sanjay Kohli has two patents

1. Multipath processing for GPS receivers  http://www.google.co.in/patents/US20030165186

ABSTRACT
A GPS receiver system determines the presence of trackable signals at code delays less than the prompt delay being tracked for a particular signal and changes the prompt delay to correspond to the smallest code delay having a trackable signal. Trackable signals at large code delays are multipath signals and may be separately tracked to aid in dead reckoning. The trackable signals at code delays not adjacent to the current tracked prompt delay may be tracked in the same channel as the prompt delay so that all satellite channels are continuously evaluated for multipath signals being tracked or a non-satellite specific channel may be used to sequentially step through the satellite signals to evaluate multipath on a satellite by satellite basis.
2. GPS Car navigation System https://www.google.com/patents/US6041280
ABSTRACT
A GPS car navigation system derives GPS position update information from motion of the car along the actual track. Turns along the track are detected when they actually occur and are compared with the predicted turns so that the time and position at the actual turn can be used to update the then current GPS derived position of the vehicle. Updating position information with actual turn data improves the accuracy of GPS navigation especially during single satellite navigation.

Sanjai Kohli – https://www.linkedin.com/in/sanjai-kohli-8a39baa

 

Read More About How Global Positioning Works

 

History of Airplane : Shivkar Bapuji Talpade

History of Airplane : Indian invented Airplane well before Wright Brothers

Well the history should be rewritten it is not the Wright brothers who invented airplane, airplane was invented in India thousands of years ago and it was Shivkar Bapuji Talpade who actually flown an unmanned airplane in 1895

Inventor of airplane

Inventor of airplane – Shivkar Bapuji Talpade

The True History of Airplane

Shivkar Bapuji Talpade constructed airplane under the guidance Vaimānika Śāstra (वैमानिक शास्त्र) . The knowledge of 

Vaimānika Śāstra was distilled from Rigveda. Talpade stayed in Dukkar Wadi ( now named as Vijay Wadi ) Chira Bazar, Mumbai. He was a scholar in Sanskrit Literature and Vedas. Talpade flown his airplane in 1895 and his plane was named  ad Marutsakhā.

Vaimānika Śāstra (वैमानिक शास्त्र) : Shakuna Vimana

Vaimānika Śāstra (वैमानिक शास्त्र) : Shakuna Vimana

Vaimānika Śāstra (वैमानिक शास्त्र) :

 Maharshi Bharadwaaja attained mastery over the Vedas by studying works of earlier Aachaaryaas, he has presented his knowledge to mankind in his work named ‘Yantrasarvasva’. In the fourtieth chapter he deals with the science of aeronautics. He explained the construction and use of many kinds of aerplanes in 8 chapters, containing 100 subjects heads , comprising 500 sutras.

Bharadwaaja defines the word Vimaana as :

Vega-Saamyaat Vimaano Andajaanaam. Sootra 1

“Owing to similarity of speed with birds, it is named Vimaana.”

Refer : http://upload.vedpuran.net/Uploads/121113the_vimanika_shastra.pdf

A Glipse of Vaimanika Shastra

In ‘Yantrasarvasva‘ it was given as follows, In order to provide electric force to all parts of the vimaana and make them operate smoothly the Shakti-panjara-keela yantra is to be installed.

“Charging of all parts of vimaana with electric current the Shakti-panjara-keela is made as follows.

Steel, crownchika alloy, and iron, in the proportion of 10,8, and 9, to be powdered and filled in crucible and placed in aatapa furnace and heated to 100 degrees and charded with 10 degrees of electric current, will yield Shakti-garbha metal with whcih the yantra is to be made.

Soorya Shaktyapakarshana Yantra or Solar Heat extracting Yantra

  “In order to protect from the cold of the 4 winter months the solar heat storing machine is now explained. The 27th kind of mirror capable of capturing solar heat is to be used in its making.”

It is said in Darpana prakarana: Sphatika or alum, manjula or madder root, sea-foam, sarja salt or nation, sand, mercury, garada or aconite, kishora or wild liquorice, gandhaka or sulphur brimstone, karbura or yellow orpiment, praanakshaara or ammonium chloride, in the proportion of 12, 1, 5, 1, 13, 12, 8, I0, 27, 4, 3, 7, 8, 5, 1. 5, 8, 3, 9, 2, purified, to be filled in antarmukha crucible, placing it in shuka-mukha furnace, and boded. Then pour it into antarmukha yantra or vessel and turn the churning key. When cooled in the mould a fine, light, strong, golden. coloured, solar heat collecting glass will be formed.

Read more interesting Ancient Indian Science and Mathematics

Pythagorean Theorem In Ancient Indian Mathematics : Baudhāyana Sulbasūtra

 

References

http://upload.vedpuran.net/Uploads/121113the_vimanika_shastra.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaim%C4%81nika_Sh%C4%81stra

Jira Bug tracking tool tutorial : Atlassian Documentation

Jira Bug tracking tool tutorial : Atlassian Documentation

Before jumping to this tutorial : Go through our another article on Writing Efficient Test Cases

 

Jira : The basic use of jira tool is to track the issue and to track bugs related to software and mobile application. and  user for Project management. Jira is complete solution for project management provided by atlassianConfluence is the one place for all the team work, Create , Organize and discuss work with your team.

Jira work flow: Configuring Workflow

Jira provides a default workflow which looks like below

 

jira-defaultworkflow

jira-defaultworkflow

 

  1. JIRAOpen.
  2. Assign.
  3. Resolved.
  4. Reopen.
  5. Closed.
  1. Open: Test Engineer test the application according to the requirement, while testing if test engineer find any issues, test engineer can raise the issue and change the status as open.
  2. Assign: Test Engineer assign a issue to the developer present in the company to fix the issue and change the status as Assign.
  3. Resolved: Developer can check the issue and fix the issue occurred in the application or software and change the status as resolved.
  4. Reopen: Test Engineer retest the application to check whether the issue is really fixed by developer or not and if issue is not fixed test engineer can change the status as reopen.
  5. Closed: Test Engineer retest the software or application to check the issue was fixed by developer or not and if issue was fixed change the status as closed.

How to report bug in Jira tool

  1. Project: In project drop down select a project which we have to test.
  2. Issue type:

4

  • Task
  • Bug
  • Epic
  • Story
  • Task: Task that needs to be done.
  • Bug: A problem which impairs or prevents the functions of the product.
  • Epic: An Epic captures a large body of work. It is essentially a larger user story that can be broken down into a number of smaller stories.
  • Story: Story is user requirement.

5

  1. Summary: In summary field enter the brief description about the issue or bug.
  2. Reporter: Reporter is a test engineer or a person who is analyzing, finding and reporting a bug or issue.
  3. Components: Components are sub-sections of a project. They are used to group issues within a project into smaller parts. Application contains several components like for example take gmail application,which contain login component and compose component. if user mention particular component where the issue is occurred,its easy to find issue.
  4. Description: Description contains steps to reproduce an issue or bug. And steps of scenario.

 Example: steps to validate login button.

  1. Enter Username.
  2. Enter Password.
  3. Click on Login button
  4. Fix/Versions: 
  1. Priority levels in Jira:

7

  • Highest: This problem will block progress.
  • High: Serious problem that could block progress.
  • Medium: Has the potential to affect progress.
  • Low: Minor problem or easily worked around.
  • Lowest: Trivial problem with little or no impact on progress.

8

  1. Labels:
  2. Attachments:  An attachment is any file that is included with your page. Examples of attachments are screenshots, photographs, other images, Word documents, presentations, PDF documents.
  3. Linked Issues:
  4. Issue: Select issue type, issue is either functional or integration or UI issue (User Interface).
  5. Assignee: Assignee is a developer or person who is fixing a issue.
  6. Epic Link: 
  7. Sprint: Time taken to complete a project is called as sprint.

 Posted By

Vinayak Mudiyappanavar,

Trainee Test Engineer

Pythagorean Theorem In Ancient Indian Mathematics : Baudhāyana Sulbasūtra

Pythagorean Theorem  In Ancient Indian Mathematics   : Baudhāyana Sulbasūtra

Many great mathematicians have born in Bharat several thousands of years ago, Ancient Indians invented several theorems in mathematics. Aryabhata the Indian Mathematical Genius lived in (476–550 CE) he worked on approximation of pi(\pi) and concluded that its irrational, he has given the formula for the area of a triangle, he discussed the concept of sine etc.

But I would like to discuss one of the most popular theorem Pythagorean theorem, it is named as Pythagorean theorem but it was proved by Ancient Indian Mathematicians several hundreds of years before even Pythagoras born. Just look into the sutra given below.

Install an android mobile application to learn more such interesting facts : Download 

Baudhāyana Sulbasūtra

दीर्घचतुरश्रस्याक्ष्णया रज्जु: पार्श्र्वमानी तिर्यग् मानी च यत् पृथग् भूते कुरूतस्तदुभयं करोति ॥

dīrghachatursrasyākṣaṇayā rajjuḥ pārśvamānī, tiryagmānī,
cha yatpṛthagbhūte kurutastadubhayāṅ karoti.

इसका अर्थ है, किसी आयात का कर्ण क्षेत्रफल में उतना ही होता है, जितना कि उसकी लम्बाई और चौड़ाई होती है। ” बोधायन ” ने ” शुल्ब-सूत्र ” में यह सिद्धान्त दिया है।

A rope stretched along the length of the diagonal produces an area which the vertical and horizontal sides make together

Check this : Another Indian Genius explains about Pythagorean theorem 

Science in Ancient India : Ancient Indian Education

Find out best realtime examples, interesting facts on concepts and all the formulas. The best mobile application for 10+ students (PUC I and II year students)

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.dhi.educcesspu&hl=en

Mobile Application for PU students

Mobile Application for PU students

Android Mobile Application for 10+ students

Android Mobile Application for 10+ students

 

Also Check interesting explaination of Pythagoras Theorem

Pythagoras Theorem Explained – Mathemagic with Bawa

Pythagoras Theorem Explained – Mathemagic with Bawa

Find out best realtime examples, interesting facts on concepts and all the formulas. The best mobile application for 10+ students (PUC I and II year students)

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.dhi.educcesspu&hl=en

Mobile Application for PU students

Mobile Application for PU students

Android Mobile Application for 10+ students

Android Mobile Application for 10+ students

Pythagoras Theorem Explained – Mathemagic with Bawa

Check This : Pythagorean theorem defined by Ancient Indian Mathematicians thousands of years ago.

Writing Efficient Test Case: A Test Case Template Example

A Test Case Template Example

Test case template: A template is a structural document and a test case template contains all information required for a test case. Every test engineer will write test cases in test case template, there is nothing called standard test case template. It may vary from company to company and project to project.

It mainly contains the following XLS sheets

  1. HLS Revision History – For High Level Scenario

    HLS- Test Scenario Revision

     HLS- Test Scenario Revision

  2. HLS Scenarios

    HLS-High Level Test Scenario

      HLS-High Level Test Scenario

  3. HLS Review Comments

    HLS Review_Comments_Test_Case

     HLS Review_Comments_Test_Case

  4. LLS

    HLS-High Level Test Scenario_test_case

    HLS-High Level Test Scenario_test_case

 

Test case parameters

Header

Test case name:It is a unique name written by test engineer.For every individual test engineer individual  test case name should be written in the below mentioned format.

ProjectName_ModuleName_Scenario

Release name: It is mandatory to mention release name because it helps to identify in which build the issue has been raised.

Requirement number: When BA(Business Analyst) write the requirement number for every individual requirement and  unique number will be given to each requirement, so test engineer should copy the requirement number and should write the test case template.

Module name: When BA(Business Analyst) write the requirement, he will also write list of all the module names so test engineer should copy the module name from the requirement and should write the test cases.

Precondition: It is the settings or actions that should be done before executing test cases or step no 1.

Test dataIt is a data created by test engineer before executing test case or step no 1.

       Example for test data : It is required to create an user account before testing file upload feature.

Test data can be created manually or we can also create test data by executing automation scripts.

Post condition:It is an expected result that we get from the application or when we give the input to the application what ever output we get from the application that is called as post condition.

We mainly use post data when one of the test case is depending on the output of previous test case.

Severity:Test engineer should give severity for each and every individual test cases based on complexity of the feature and importance of feature and importance of feature to the customer business, based on severity test engineer will decide which test cases should be executed first and which test cases executed next.

3 types of severity

1)  Critical

2)  Major

3)  Minor

Test case type: Test engineer should mention which type of testing he is writing in the test case type.

Functional testing

Integration testing

System testing

Smoke testing

Brief description:This field describe the complete information about  the test case

Test execution hours:Test engineer should mention how much time he has taken to write and execute the test case ,the value for this field should be enter once of after test execution.

Body

Step no:This field is mainly use to identify each and every step uniquely.

Action or description:It consists of all the navigation steps.

Input:This field consist of the values entered by test engineer while testing the application (URL,Username,password and all  +ve  and  -ve value you entered for every field)

Expected Result:Test engineer will write Expected result by looking in to the requirement the value for this field is entered before test execution.

Actual Result:Test engineer will write actual result while executing the test cases execution. Test engineer will get the actual result from the application.

Status:Test engineer will enter the status of test case as pass or fail after test execution. if expected result is not matching with actual result than test case status  is fail else it is pass.

Comments:If the test case is fail then test engineer should enter the reason in the comments stating why the test case is failed.

Footer

Author:Test engineer one who write the test case is called as author.

Reviewer or reviewed by:Test engineer one who reviews the test case which is written by other test engineer is called as reviewer.

Approved by:Test engineer one who approves the test case is called as approved by or approver.

Approval date:The date on which test case is approved is called date.

Download Test Case Template XLS file

Important : Learn  to use JIRA bug tracking tool

 Posted By

Vinayak Mudiyappanavar,

Trainee Test Engineer