How Longitude, Latitude and GPS location services works
This article is to understand the mathematics behind GPS location services, how exactly google maps calculates the distance, how basic mathematics being used behind the screen.
Before going directly to mathematical part of it, let us understand the theory part 🙂 . how it is possible to locate places on the planet earth and calculate the distance? Mathematics has changed the world and is the base for everything. We all know that earth is like sphere, its not exact sphere because earth is spinning on its axis and the equator is flat compared to poles of the earth.
Earth Longitude Latitude
The image above clearly shows how exactly the earth is, since its flat along the equator the radius at equator is more compared to radius along the poles.
But considering the mean radius of earth we shall assume earth as a perfect sphere. So the radius of the earth is 6371Kms.
Let us consider two locations JP Nagar, and Jayanagar in Bangalore India. If I locate these places on the sphere It looks as below.
Mathematics behind Distance calculation using Locations points
Earth Locations Sphere Calculations
Earth Locations Sphere Calculations
There are many methods to calculate the distance between two points, many will prefer the below logic. Note here the first image show all Latitude values vary between [-90,+90] and longitude varies between [-180,+180]
Google’s Project Loon : Connecting the world using Drones to provide internet for remote area
Google started its acquired Space Data Corp which use to work on providing internet connectivity to truckers and oil companies in united states. Project Loon started officially in Google’s secret SpaceX lab in 2011.
in 2013 Google launched 30 balloons in New Zealand in coordination with civil aviation authority.
Google can keep balloons in the air for 75 days. One balloon, called Ibis 152, has been in air for over 100 days, while another balloon, called Ibis 162, circled the globe three times before it finally descended. The Loon team has also bolstered balloon internet speeds utilising LTE and providing 22 MB/sec to ground antennas and 5 MB/sec to handsets.
Google Balloon in remote area
How Project Look works ?
Google’s Balloon flys 20km above the earth surface in the stratosphere,stratosphereis the second layer of the earth surface. Winds in this surface are stratified, balloon uses an intelligent algorithms which decides the direction and speed of the balloon, considering wind speed in stratosphere.
Google Loon’s Balloon Design
Loon’s balloon envelopes are made from sheets of polyethylene plastic, and they measure fifteen meters wide by twelve meters tall when fully inflated. When a balloon is ready to be taken out of service, gas is released from the envelope to bring the balloon down to Earth in a controlled descent.
Google Loon’s Envelop
How Google Loon Works ?
Google Loon’s ballons are fitted with high efficiency monocrystalline solar cells, The panels produce approximately 100 Watts of power in full sun.
How Google Loon works
How Google Loon Connects ?
A Picture Says a lot 🙂
How Google Loon Connects
Project Loon Scaling up.
Facebook is also in the same line, Facebook taken bit different approach but both are using drones.
Facebook’s first full scale aircraft, Aquila : Connecting Remote Areas using laser technology
Light is playing an important role in this universe, without light there is no life. People were using Light for the communication from centuries ago. Why can’t we use the same technology now to connect remote places? Facebook’s ambitious project to provide internet connectivity to the remote places on earth using laser technology and a wonderful aircraft which beam downs internet connectivity from the sky. Aquila aircraft, is a part of facebook’s Internet.org effort.
A breakthrough in laser communications technology, made this possible. Facebook successfully tested a new laser that can transmit data at 10 gigabits per second. That’s ten times faster than any previous system, and it can accurately connect with a point the size of a dime from more than 10 miles away.
Facebook’s Laser Technology
This effort is important because 10% of the world’s population lives in areas without existing internet infrastructure. To affordably connect everyone, we need to build completely new technologies.
How Facebook’s Aquila Aircraft establish Connection ?
Establishing connectivity using aircraft is a totally different idea, looks like practically impossible, proving theoretically might be easier but the real world scenario might be more challenging. using lasers might seem like science fiction. But science fiction is often just science before its time. It will be tested in the real world and continue refining.
Facebook’s Aquila Communication
The projected laser beam can reach the remote places and the receivers fitted on the roof of the house can establish the connection.
Facebook has a solid team, enough money but more importantly they are utilising it very well. To survive in market one should always think about the competitors and never give any chance to any one to come and stand with you.
Facebook Connectivity Lab has skilled engineers like Yalae Maguire PHD,
Yalae Maguire PHD
To achieve this Facebook must reinvent the laser technology, Hamid Hemmati has taken the responsibility.
An Aircraft is different and using an aircraft for connectivity is totally different, Andy Cox is heading Aviation Team
An electro optical field is an interesting area of research and Harvard Harding in Facebook is really innovating in that field .
Windows 10 free upgrade still not showing up? Use this trick
Windows started rolling out windows 10 updates to its users, If you have registered but still not getting Windows 10 upgrade options then you have to wait for some time, Windows 10 upgrade will be downloading for you. But if you just cant wait then use the below trick to get it now 🙂
Windows 10 upgrade path and process
Open Command Prompt as Administrator
Enter wuauclt.exe /updatenow
Give it a few minutes, and open up Windows Update
Voila! You should now have the Windows 10 upgrade prompt on your Windows 7 or Windows 8/8.1 PC!
For some people the above thing may not work, kindly note that you should open cmd ( search cmd in windows search) not command prompt.
Google announced, no forced Google Plus ( Google+) subscriptions
Interestingly Google announced that It is stopping forced subscription for google plus, Google plus was launched four years ago in 2011. Google+ initially was very promising, number of subscriptions were more compared to Facebook. The user base growth was good enough compared to Facebook.
However the stats says a lot and the reason google deciding to say goodbye.
Google plus Vs Facebook users
Google plus vs facebook
This is interesting fact… but how many active users ?
An analyst , Anderson studies data compiled byEdward Morbius, who says that just 9% of its 2.2 billion users actively post public content.
The complete stats on all social media platforms is availablehere
So google is stopping their users to subscribe forcefully for google plus. so Google plus and youtube are finally splitting up. It is interesting to see google like company taking interesting moves. But It is really good move by google, they have many things to focus for the future.
8 Ways the Internet Of Things (IOT) will change the way you live
The way technology is changing it looks like you no need to worry about anything, your every device will worry about you and will take care of you. The era of Humans control devices is over now, It changed to Devices control humans 🙂 . Before going further on this article, let us first see why Big companies creating business over IOT, so many Internet of things projects going on in market. Companies are forced to adopt new protocol since Internet of things became popular.
9 Ways the Internet Of Things will change the way you live, there are 9 key areas Everything is connected to your internet now. By the way what are these things? Things are objects you use your shoes to your dress, your office chair to your office vehicle, those tiny measuring instruments at your factory to huge machines , anything and everything.
It is just a service to connect your physical objects to digital entities and bringing intelligence in your device.
1. Smart Home and Office
A device which text you when someone rings your (wireless) doorbell; turn on the light by talking to Siri; tweet at you when your water tap is on and water is waiting in your kitchen; or, when motion is detected in your lawn, take a photo from your webcam and upload it to Dropbox.
Lock/unlock your door from anywhere just by tapping a button in your smart phone, this is not a great thing but where Internet of things will come into picture? Assume that you will be coming to your home daily at 6PM? almost 25 days you will come around 6PM in a month? but some times you may come home early due to you 1st shift in work? all these data will be stored in server and analysed. You device will become clever, intelligent by analysing the data. By chance if some one hack your device and opens the door, you device can predict some one unlocked at an odd time, and will notify you immediately. ” Hey ! it looks like you came home early ? if not respond me quickly it is not your usual time of coming home early, your not into 1st shift also. Looks like I am hacked 🙂 please respond…”
Internet of Things now built in your kitchen, connected objects to smarten up your home, Smart home security,
Temperature control at your home ?
Your kids are at door steps, you are still at your office. Ofcourse you can see your kids standing infront of your home using your Internet Of Things connected smart lock. You unlock your door and set room temperature which is suitable to your kids.
Over several days, your thermostat system learn that your kids prefer what temperature and your grand ma prefer which temperature. next time when your kids come home thermostat will automatically sense it ( your do software update over internet) and will adjust the temperature.
Lights controlled at your office, you no need to use ID tags now at office, work space door will open as you go near.
Facts says that smart-home market could grow to $60 billion by 2020.
Your vehicles now are automated, you come near to your vehicle in parking slot, it automatically take reverse and will come just infront of you.
They analyse the traffic data collected over the period of time, will change the route by considering google maps data, history and will decide which route to take today. An urban planner should change and adopt technology and an urban planner should look smart for this internet age.
Your trains will suggest you to change the schedule by analysing peak times, by analysing people’s preferred timings or by analysing traffic data from maps
3. Smart Cities
Your traffic signals will change the timings by analysing traffic data collected or waiting time of people at signals. In Banglore traffic there are so many signals where people simply wait long even though no much traffic, no more such mistakes.
You are near to a shopping mall ? and there is an offer on your favourite branded shirt ? Internet Of Things will make you aware of that, you will never miss that offer 🙂
The street lights will turn on only when people/vehicle approaches near, smart LED lights can be used for this.
Smart LED streetlights in San Diego turn on only when a pedestrian or vehicle approaches—the city recently replaced 3,000 old streetlamps with sensor-equipped ones to save an estimated $250,000 a year.
Your garbage cans are now solar powered and will crush the garbage, will dispatch it to public garbage collector system, they will become smarter they analyse what kind of materials you use, which is good for what by analysing data collected through IOT and will separate out items and learn to segregate by itself 🙂
Real time example ? Philly (Philly is an informal name for Philadelphia, a major city in Pennsylvania) has been able to reduce the number of weekly garbage-collecting shifts from 17 to just three, and realize $1 million a year in savings on fuel, maintenance and labour costs.
London now testing smart cities operating system, An operating system designed to power the smart cities of the future will be put through its paces in London. By 2050 it is estimated that 70% of the world’s population will live in cities. Living Plan IT estimates that £13tn will be spent in developing and regenerating urban spaces between now and 2020.
4. Smart Manufacturing
You devices, sensors, measuring instruments at manufacturing hub now analyse big data collected every day. They will do slight modifications in their process, will grab you more revenue by optimising themselves.
Your smart system will analyse everything and will suggest you for a smart movements of devices, machines which reduces amount of work and increases the manufacturing speed.
Harley-Davidson motorcycle plant in York did something great, One analyst recently told The Wall Street Journal that installing a manufacturing execution system into a single factory can cost between $500,000 and $1 million. But according to SAP (which provided the Harley plant’s software), the factory can now turn out 25% more bikes with 30% fewer workers. Instead of delivering one of its 1,700 bike variations in 21 days, it can manage delivery in a mere six hours.Reference
5. Smart Energy Systems
Collection of data over several years helps to innovate new energy plants, scientists were able to invent wind turbines without blade, bird lovers would be happy with these blade less wind turbines
6. Smart Health Kit
Now a wrist band in your hand analyses you pulse, your breath and predicts well before you will suffer from a disease, there are devices which will analyse your breath and predict breast cancer, Apple has invented Apple watch which is integrated with bunch of sensors.
A device can analyse your heart beat data collected several months and can suggest you precautionary activities to keep you away from heart attack.
7. Smart Agriculture
Now sensors fitted in your field can constantly analyse weather variations and suggest you to take necessary steps for better farming,
They can analyse and predict the time elephants, birds come and spoil your farm and alarm you well before they arrive or can switch on low strength electric fence at the time only.
Sensors can analyse soil moisture records and will switch on the pump only when it is required, can even add fertilisers in water the amount which is required
8. Smart Entertainment devices
Your MP3 players can now analyse which songs you listen what time, they can even analyse the place you are currently in and switch to the song you prefer to listen that moment.
Your music system is now smarter then ever, it can play ABC song when your kids arrive at home from school.
Era of Artificial Intelligence : Facebook new algorithm to identify people
Amost five years ago face recognition was a trend your mobile applications use to set ur face as password for your smartphones, Windows OS introduced face recognition to unlock the system, Facebook used face recognition for tagging people in the group photos.
But Face recognition is now very old, technology is changing so fast that today’s technology will become out dated tomorrow. Every day something new coming to market, people are becoming more innovative than ever. Recognition ? what else can one do other than face and voice recognition ?
Identity of a person based on his unique characteristics
Every person will be having his own uniqueness in his characteristics, the way he dress, his hair style, his body shape, his standing posture what else ?. Identifying a person based on his characteristics can be achieved by properly analysing the data.
Facebook can recognise you in photos for tagging, even if you’re not looking
Facebook is experimenting on a new algorithm which can recognise a person based on his unique characteristics even though his face is not visible. Yann LeCun, head of artificial intelligence at Facebook, is leading a team of researchers. The team is analysing more than 40000 thousands photos from flickr and experimenting in the lab.
However there are certain privacy concerns raised by experts, but Facebook will surely find a way to keep things secured.
Facebook Shows how artificial intelligence improve Facebook to show you perfect posts
Facebook has set up three AI labs so far, the company is investing enough time and effort on AI which helps Facebook to server the content that matches the people’s interest. Facebook revealed backend recognition tech in F8 conference. CTO Mike Schroepfer described new systems for identifying the content and context of videos and sentences.
Facebook working on secretly working onLanguage Technology Groupand experimenting on recorded voices and converting it into text. It has been planned by Facebook to release the feature in Facebook messenger where it converts voice to text.
Facebook’s Video AI prototype
Facebook has developed video AI prototype that identify 485 types of sports but recognises tiny differences among games. See the video given below
AI can read sentences and determine things like who possesses what, or where is an object.
Check this experiment 🙂 AI recognises content from the Lord Of The Rings and able to answer question about the story.
Why AI Matters for Facebook ?
The one and only aim to understand the content, show the relevant content to the user. This is really very much required for Facebook like company because if some one else enter into the market with a new idea then people might start looking towards it. The only thing every one must focus on is never allow your user to think about something else.
Facebook, Google and Apple are really doing a great job in this aspect, Nokia once was a leading mobile phone manufacturers, but one product like iPhone killed Nokia. If you are an entrepreneur then you must learn a lesson out of it.
a) Click on the load and load the pem (make file type as All) file.
Give the passphrase and confirm it. Then click on the save private Key.
putty key generator
Login to amazon linux box using putty
b) Now open the putty provide all the details as mentioned below
HostName : your amazon instance address (Public IP) or Public DNS
Go to Auth and give the private key file path.
Go to Data and provide the defaulr user: ec2-user
Amazon EC2 Putty login
Amazon EC2 Putty Configuration
c) Click on Open in putty. It will ask for passphrase to enter provide the passphrase which you have entered while generating the private key.
After successful login you should be able to see this
SSH Login to Amazon EC2
Now you are successfully logged into Amazon ec2 box. Welcome to the amazon Linux box
Installation of Apache in the Box
The amazon linux box will come with default java. No need to install separately (if you want you can install the other version of java)
To check the directory of java use the below command
1. The amazon linux box will come with default java. No need to install separately (if you want you can install the other version of java)
To check the directory of java use the below command
2. You can install the Apache tomcat using the below command
sudo service tomcat7 start
Or you can also copy paste the apache into some specific path using winzip
Create directory share/tomcat/ inside /usr.
Copy the Apache from your local drive to usr/share/tomcat directory
3. You can install the web-server using the below command:
sudo yum groupinstall -y "Web Server".
Use the below command to start and stop the webserver:
sudo service httpd start and sudo service httpd stop
4. Deploy the war file into the WebApp folder in the apache tomcat then start the tomcat.
Access the application using the http://PublicIPAddress:8080/ApplciationName
Some usefull links and commands regarding setting up the your amazon server
Amazon Cloud EC2 : Create and configure free tier account
Are you searching for Free tier amazon AWS EC2 guide or tutorial ? Those who are working on Setup, configure and maintaining AWS amazon Server EC2 and S3 bucket. Here is the perfect guide for you. Sys Admins will love the guide.
Steps to create Amazon EC2 cloud account,
1. GO to EC2 console and click on Instances at the left panel and Click on Launch Instance
Create Amazon EC2 account
2. Select the AmazonMachine Image (AMI) which you want. (I have selected the 1st one ie amazon linux AMI)
Chose Amazon Machine (AMI)
3. By default General purpose is selected ie free-tier (t2.micro type). (You can select the any instance type you want based on your requirement) (I have selected the free tier t2.micra which comes with 1 GB ram by default)
Amazon EC2 Instance type
4. Click Next tab at the below to configure the corresponding details. And in configure Security Group step select the Select an existing security group radio button and then Click on Review and Launch
5. Click on Review andLaunch.
6. Once you click on Launch it will ask you to create key pair. Select Create New Key Pair from the drop down and give some name and click on Download key pair (It will helpful in future to connect Amazon server using putty). It will download one .pem file with the given name
7. Click on Launch Instances, this completed the creation of Amazon instances. In the next screen click on the view instances
Amazon EC2 launch instance
Amazon EC 2 DB instance creation
1. Click on Services at the top bar select RDS at the left panel, Select DataBase under all services and then select RDS
Amazon EC2 DB creation
2. Click on instances at the left panel and click on Launch DB Instance.
Amazon EC2 DB instance create
3. Select the required DB engine. (I am selecting MySql)
4. Production Select the No radio button for the free tier version and click on next step.
Amazon EC2 DB instance free tier
5. Fill the DB details in with the below details.
License Model : General-public-license
DB Engine Version : 22.214.171.124
DBInstance Class : db.t2.micra -1vCPU, 1 GB RAM
Multi-AZ Deployment : No
Storage Type : General Purpose (SSD)
Allocated Storage : 5
Provide the DB instance identifier, Master username and Passwor (these details will be usefull later for DB connection from the application or to connect from the sql clients)
Click on Next Step : Configure the advance details as shown below image for free tier.
Amazon EC2 DB Instance Advanced Settings
Amazon EC2 DB instance Advanced Settings
Amazon EC2 DB instance Advanced Settings 1
5. Click on the Launch DB Instances and click on view DB instance to see the DB details. (It may take some time to create the DB)
Solar powered Smartphones : Solar thin plate at back of the smartphone
What will be the impact on environment due to usage of smart phones ? how much energy they consume ? this might look silly because after all a smartphone how much it can consume ?
fine let us analyse the data …
How much electricity your Gadgets use ?
An iPhone 6 plus battery spec is 2915 mAh battery (11.1 Wh), for your information 1Wh is a unit of energy equivalent to one watt (1 W) of power expended for one hour (1 h) of time.1 Wh represents 3600 joules of energy. Your iPhone uses 11.1Wh, now assuming you will charge your phone every day, so it means every year your phone consumes 4000Wh of energy per year.
now think about number of iPhone users , yeah here is the stats. Apple sold a whopping 74.4 million iPhones over the 90 day period. Which means 74400000 iPhones ( assuming all are iPhone 6 plus ). So the total amount of energy will be 1,97,60,00,00,000Wh.
A CFL bulb uses 767KWh per year, now converting 1,97,60,00,00,000Wh. to KWh gives us 29,76,00,000Wh
so using this much power we can use 389CFL bulbs for a year. Wait I am just considering iPhone 6 here.
We have Micromax,Samasung Galaxy series, HTC, Motorola etc.
Now let us take a look into total number of mobile phones used in the world 🙂
Total number of mobiles in the world
Its a huge number – so energy being used ???
Why it is necessary to think about Solar Powered Smart phones ?
Considering the above stats it is really a good idea to think about keeping a solar plate attached to the back of your smart phone and completely avoid using electricity for charging. If you start using 3G you have charge your phone atleast two times in a day, playing videos and games at least three-four times you have to charge in a day.
Let us look into few more stats – The below data is almost 3-4 years old
61% of smart phone subscriptions, 4221 Mega joules of energy which is equivalent to 32gallons of Gas and emits 112Kgs of CO2.
Transferring 1GBit of data over 3G network will use 933 Mega joules of energy, If every one left their cell phone charger plugged It would waste electricity enough to power 28000 homes.