Analysis

Era of Artificial Intelligence : Facebook new algorithm to identify people

Era of Artificial Intelligence : Facebook new algorithm to identify people

Amost five years ago face recognition was a trend your mobile applications use to set ur face as password for your smartphones, Windows OS introduced face recognition to unlock the system, Facebook used face recognition for tagging people in the group photos. 

But Face recognition is now very old, technology is changing so fast that today’s technology will become out dated tomorrow. Every day something new coming to market, people are becoming more innovative than ever. Recognition ? what else can one do other than face and voice recognition ?

Identity of a person based on his unique characteristics

Every person will be having his own uniqueness in his characteristics, the way he dress, his hair style, his body shape, his standing posture what else ?. Identifying a person based on his characteristics can be achieved by properly analysing the data.

Facebook can recognise you in photos for tagging, even if you’re not looking

Facebook is experimenting on a new algorithm which can recognise a person based on his unique characteristics even though his face is not visible. Yann LeCun, head of artificial intelligence at Facebook, is leading a team of researchers. The team is analysing more than 40000 thousands photos from flickr and experimenting in the lab.

However there are certain privacy concerns raised by experts, but Facebook will surely find a way to keep things secured.

Read more about Future Technology : future-of-technology-imagine-the-future

Facebook Shows how artificial intelligence improve Facebook to show you perfect posts

Facebook has set up three AI labs so far, the company is investing enough time and effort on AI which helps Facebook to server the content that matches the people’s interest. Facebook revealed backend recognition tech in F8 conference. CTO Mike Schroepfer described new systems for identifying the content and context of videos and sentences.

Facebook working on secretly working on Language Technology Group and experimenting on recorded voices and converting it into text. It has been planned by Facebook to release the feature in Facebook messenger where it converts voice to text.

Facebook’s Video AI prototype

Facebook has developed video AI prototype that identify 485 types of sports but recognises tiny differences among games. See the video given below

AI can read sentences and determine things like who possesses what, or where is an object.

Check this experiment 🙂 AI recognises content from the Lord Of The Rings and able to answer question about the story.

Why AI Matters for Facebook ?

The one and only aim to understand the content, show the relevant content to the user. This is really very much required for Facebook like company because if some one else enter into the market with a new idea then people might start looking towards it. The only thing every one must focus on is never allow your user to think about something else.

Facebook, Google and Apple are really doing a great job in this aspect, Nokia once was a leading mobile phone manufacturers, but one product like iPhone killed Nokia. If you are an entrepreneur then you must learn a lesson out of it.

Also Read : An Interesting Article on how Facebook using aircrafts, laser beam to provide internet to remote areas on earth

Also Read : Interesting Article on How Facebook Using Artificial Intelligence, Facebook identifies you based on your hair style, your dressing, your standing posture

Also Read Windows 10 upgrade is available : See what you have to do if you can’t wait 🙂

Also Read : 8 Ways IOT will change your life .

Also Read : Is Google+ struggling ?

Think about it.

Regular Expressions : How Exactly they work internally ?

Regular Expressions : How Exactly they work internally ?

Regular expressions were playing major role in computers from several decades, they are not as simple as we think. They are need extensive computational power, a decade before regular expressions were a big headache for computer programmers and scientists because they were consuming lot of time to complete the task.

History behind Regular Expressions :

A neuroscientist  who tried to understand how the human brain could produce complex patterns using simple cells that are bound together. In 1943, Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts published “A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity”.  this paper had a great influence on computer science during that time. In 1956, mathematician Stephen Kleene developed this model one step further. In the paper “Representation of events in nerve nets and finite automata” he presents a simple algebra. The terms Regular Sets and Regular Expressions were born from then. As mentioned above, Kleene’s algebra had only two operations and one function. In 1968, the Unix pioneer Ken Thompson published the article “Regular Expression Search Algorithm” in Communications.

A Pattern in regular expression :

How to learn regular expressions ? How to understand regular expressions?. They look confusing to understand regular expression but regular expressions are an elegant way to do some string manipulations.

We have studied finite automata and the regular expressions all just works on this theory, but Most modern programming languages (Perl, Python, Ruby, Java (and JVM based languages), C#) do not use this approach rather they use recursive backtracking approach. But finite automata is really good to understand regular expressions with its state diagrams and not a bad idea to implement in this approach may be recursive backtracking is better. So do you need a help to understand regular expression? here it is…

Let us take one example, Validating an email address

If this is your regular expression

[a-z][a-z|0-9|]*([_][a-z|0-9]+)*([.][a-z|0-9]+([_][a-z|0-9]+)*)

The respective state diagram might look like below

Regular expression state diagram

Regular expression state diagram

 

Regular expression parser Source Code

If you want to try out with your own regular expression code you can better go through here 

http://www.codeproject.com/Articles/5412/Writing-own-regular-expression-parser

 

MIT’s Robot can jump over hurdles : Cheetah robot

MIT’s Robot can jump over hurdles : Cheetah robot

Human’s can achieve anything, human mind is the greatest gift of god. If you run in hurry or if you run on a moving floor your mind will get confused and some times you fell down. If you are not practiced then you can’t even cross two three hurdles continuously, you will fell down. Have you ever wondered a robot can do this ? it is so difficult to program even a simplest automation or even a simplest robot which can just move by itself. Now we have everything ready made so you may say it is not so difficult, but Cheetha which can run and jump over the hurdles ? really challenging.

A MIT’s Cheetah Robotic TEAM

Deborah Ajilo, Negin Abdolrahim Poorheravi,John Patrick Mayo,Justin Cheung, Sangbae Kim, Shinsuk Park, Kathryn L. Evans, and Matt Angle.  Will Bosworth, Joao Luiz Almeida Souza Ramos, Sehyuk Yim, Albert Wang, Meng Yee Chuah, and Hae Won Park.

Algorithm Behind MIT’s Cheetha robot :

The bounding algorithm which made this possible will program each of the robot’s legs to exert a certain amount of force in the split second during which it hits the ground, in order to maintain a given speed: In general, the faster the desired speed, the more force must be applied to propel the robot forward.

the cheetaha robot adopts the force as per the surface and hence it successfully passed the test in grassy area and treadmill.Robot can run 16 km/h, jump about 40 centimetres high, land safely and continue running for at least 15 minutes .

Technical Details of MIT’s Bounding Algorithm and Robotic Cheetah

It took more than 5 years to achieve this and Cheetah 2 contains the custom electric motor designed by Jeffrey Lang, the Vitesse Professor of Electrical Engineering at MIT and the amplifier designed by David Otten, a principal research engineer in MIT’s Research Laboratory of Electronics. 

“bounding algorithm” calculates the varying amounts of force required to propel an animal forward or to jump over obstacles. Algorithm models the running mechanics of world-class sprinters like Olympian Usain Bolt: the faster the desired speed, the greater the force the legs exert.

This robotic cheetah carries out its movements with the help of battery powered electric motors which do not make much noise even.  Though the US-military has been trying for several years to make a stealthy and fast robot, it hadn’t been successful until now so this DARPA funded research by the MIT researchers may just open a whole new vision regarding the making of a stealthier bot.

 

Android: ItemClickListner with CheckBox or RadioButton.

Android: ItemClickListner with CheckBox or RadioButton.

Lets take a scenario to understand the need of a listview which will have checkbox embedded in it.

Consider the flipkart mobile app, in that we want to compare 2 or more products, in order to do that I will go on selecting the items which I want to compare and then click on the compare button.

 

So we have multiple items in that and hence we cant use the android built in types for creating the list view. Hence we need to follow the below mentioned approach.

 

  1. Create an activity, which contains 2 listviews, one listview for displaying all available mobiles and another listview for displaying selected mobiles.
  2. Create an adapter for filling the mobile list for the above mentioned listviews.
  3. The layout which will be used for creating row which will make ItemClickListner work is as follows,

 

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<RelativeLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:descendantFocusability="blocksDescendants"
    android:focusable="false"
    android:focusableInTouchMode="false"
    android:clickable="false">

    <CheckBox
        android:id="@+id/selectMob"
        android:layout_width="wrap_content"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:focusable="false"
        android:focusableInTouchMode="false"
        android:clickable="false"
        />

    <LinearLayout
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:orientation="horizontal"
        android:weightSum="2"
        android:layout_toRightOf="@id/selectMob"
        android:layout_alignTop="@id/selectMob">
    <TextView
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:text="Nokia"
        android:id="@+id/make"
        android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal"
        android:layout_weight="1"/>
        <TextView
            android:layout_width="match_parent"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:text="Lumia"
            android:id="@+id/model"
            android:layout_weight="1"/>
    </LinearLayout>

    <LinearLayout
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:orientation="horizontal"
        android:weightSum="3"
        android:layout_below="@id/selectMob">
        <TextView
            android:layout_width="match_parent"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:text="Android"
            android:id="@+id/os"
            android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal"
            android:layout_weight="2"/>
        <TextView
            android:layout_width="match_parent"
            android:layout_height="wrap_content"
            android:text="20000"
            android:id="@+id/price"
            android:layout_weight="1"/>
        </LinearLayout>

</RelativeLayout>

Observe the following attributes for Checkbox,

        android:focusable="false"
        android:focusableInTouchMode="false"
        android:clickable="false"

These make the checkbox non clickable and eventually the event will be transferred to its parent i.e the row and hence the ItemClickListner will be invoked.

You can download the files here

Animation and The Role of GPU – A Performance factor

Animation and The Role of GPU – A Performance factor

Just take a look into the given CSS which rotates your div by 360deg

<span style="color: #993366;">.box_rotate {
 -webkit-transform: rotate(360deg); 
 -moz-transform: rotate(360deg); 
 -ms-transform: rotate(360deg); 
 -o-transform: rotate(360deg); 
 transform: rotate(360deg);
}
</span>

Code Example – JSFiddle

Have you ever wondered what happens in your computer when we see even a simple animation?

Your computer algorithm calculates every pixel and performs CPU intensive operation over each pixel. Ok what such operations it does ?. It calculates every pixel and performs Discrete Fourier Transformation on each pixel of the image. If your image is 512X512  = 2,62,144 pixels and the algorithms operates several frames per second, like 50 frames per second which depends upon the type of hardware/algorithm being used. It operates every pixel several times per second ( like every pixel 60 times per second ) now image for an image with size 512X512 = 2,62,144pixels and each pixel operated 60 times per second this gives you unbelievably huge number.

Assume that you operated only 1 second,

2,62,144 * 60 = 1,57,28,640 times and these many times it is not just a simple operation, they may apply Fourier transformation on each pixel. 

Another important factor to note that the Image rotation, Image scaling or any graphics related operations the the matrix calculations will come into picture. The rotation matrix and the image matrix will be multiplied to get the resulting image

rotation matrix

rotation matrix

An image matrix will be a huge one, like 512 x 512 x 3 for a given 512X512 image. the 3 in matrix indicates image is RGB coloured. It is not required to explain how matrix multiplications are CPU extensive, Theoretically, matrix-matrix multiplication uses O(N^3) operations on O(N^2) data

Comparison of GPU Matrix Multiplication operation over CPU

Why GPU and Why not CPU.

GPU are specifically made for performing graphics operations like moving pixels and applying transforms. Since CPU will be doing many more tasks like file operations, audio, calculations etc it is better to separate out your animated objects and give it to a different GPU layer. Imagine in the screen of 1024X800, somewhere some 200X100 size portion is animating, rather than giving 1024X800 space and find 200×100 space and then operate , it is nice trick to create separate layer of 200×100 space and perform animation independently in that layer.

So the load on your CPU will be reduced and the performance of the system will be improved. The difference between CSS3 and jquery animations are , CSS3 utilises GPU but jquery doesn’t, there another javascript based latest framework available called GSAP which is 20x faster than query. 

 

Comparison of jquery, CSS and GSAP Animation Performance :

http://codepen.io/GreenSock/pen/srfxA

Check our another article – how-to-make-you-web-site-faster-html-javascript-tricks

Reference : https://css-tricks.com/myth-busting-css-animations-vs-javascript/

How To Make You Web Site Faster : HTML , Javascript Tricks

How To Make You Web Site Faster : HTML , Javascript Tricks

 

The performance of your web application is highly important factor to get more user visits, experts have given many advices to improve the performance of a web application and few are listed below.

1. Meta refreshMeta refresh is a method of instructing a web browser to automatically refresh the current web page or frame after a given time interval, using an HTML meta element with the http-equiv parameter set to “refresh” and a content parameter giving the time interval in seconds.

Avoid Meta refresh as much as possible. This will slow down your site.

2. @imports will synchronously load the style sheet, Avoiding @import will improve the performance of your site. Instead of @imports use LINK tag as follows

Use
<link rel=’stylesheet’ href=’knowledge-cess-style.css’>

Than   <style> @import url(‘knowledge-cess-style.css’); </style>

3. Avoid use of multiple framework – Some people use JQuery for some functionality and DOJO for some functionality . Loading of framework will take time and your app becomes heavy. Stick to one framework.

4. Placing scripts at the end

Most people will load all their scripts at the beginning of the page. Load scripts at the end, some times it is not possible, it gives an error if a function being used in the page. In that case make two js files and keep necessary stuff in one js and load it at the beginning.

5. Use ‘differ’ attribute to if some scripts must be loaded at the beginning.

<script src=“knowledge-cess.js” defer></script>

6. To construct dynamic pages it is better to use .innerHTML rather than always creating DOM elements dynamically.

7. Referencing more DOM elements using document.querySelectorAll()

var matches = document.querySelectorAll("div.note, div.alert"); Reference

8. Use Javascript timers carefully. Don't let timers run unnecessarily.
9. Javascript animation and Math

Time to play with Math now, animation is nothing but playing with frames, higher the frame rate smoother the animation and more frames means more processing. The time interval we set for an animation should depend on screen refresh rate.

Understand how Javascript Animation related to Screen refresh rate 

Most screens have refresh rate of 60Hz, so 60 frames per second (60fps) is best frame rate.
Javascript timer will be set in milliseconds. so considering 1000ms and 60FPS which will give
1000ms/60fps = 16.7ms. so it is best timer value, so set 16.7ms or 17ms for your javascript timer while playing with animations.

function setInterval(function(){
          animate();
 },17);

10. Performance factor for PNG and JPG – PNG will be of more size compared to jpg but jpg uses more complicated decoding algorithm compared to png.

Image format PnG vs JPG and performance
The reason png size will be more is because png format will use lossless compression algorithm and jpg will use lossy compression algorithm.
11. Using requestAnimationFrame : Mozilla team proposed requestAnimationFrame method to over come from performance issues in javascript animations. Have a look into this Link
There Many more performance tuning techniques.Now let us look into some best practices of javascript

 

Best Practices in Javascript

 1. Use Shortcut notations

var cities = ["Bangalore","Delhi","Mysore"]

than

var cities = new Array();
     cities[0]='Bangalore'; 
     cities[1]='Delhi';
     cities[2]='Mysore';

2. Keep related stuff together

Best Practice – 

var settings = function(){
     var userDefaults = {
         categories: {"defaultCategory" : "xyz", "lastCategory":"pqr"},
         modules : {}
        }

      function initUserDefaults(){ }


      function clearUserDefaults(){}
   } //End of settings

The above way is clean and better approach rather than separating all methods.

3. Do not use primitive types as objects

 var name = "Ram";  //Best practice
      var name = new String("Ram"); //Not recommended

4. Use === operator

   Always use === operator for comparison, It always converts (to matching types) before comparison.

   The === operator forces comparison of values and type:

 100 == "100" //true which causes problem most of the times
      100 === "100" //false Best Practice, strict type checking

5. Global Variables in Javascript

Global variables are not recommended, Avoiding global variables is best practice.

6. Using JSLint 

Identify most common problems in your javascript code using JSLint tool

 

Check : how Animation in javascript works and how CSS3 is better than jQuerylink 

Scalability, architecture , Multitenancy : Database

Scalability, architecture , Multitenancy : Database

Assume that you have multiple clients, each client has access to similar kind of data, so database architecture should remain same for every client. 

An example for the same is , assume that you have developed an ERP product for a company, many companies will be having same requirement so the database will remain same.

Most of the developers will be under confusion, whether to go for single instance of database or multiple instance of database. Following are the two approaches and their pros and cons.

Approach 1 : Single instance database

  Keeping single instance of database but providing client id for each client to keep track of data of each client. 

Advantages : 

1) Better resource utilization – If your database is hosted on cloud services, like Amazon then as you create more number of instances they will allocate resources accordingly and charges will be applied for each instance. 
Example – check pricing for db instance in amazon
http://aws.amazon.com/rds/pricing/
http://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonRDS/latest/UserGuide/Concepts.DBInstanceClass.html
 

2) Scalability – Scalability is more easy since single instance is maintained.

Problems : 

1) Security issues – since every client’s data is in the same instance, developers should be wise enough to take care of showing data to appropriate users. Highest risk factor with single instance is security

2) Data loss – if the instance fails due to some problems related to one client, it affects to every other client, so routinely back of database is must be taken care. No compromise with data loss.

3) Performance issue – For a huge set of data performance of database might be low ( this matters for very huge data, not even for medium scale database )

This is called as Multitenancy – a principle in software architecture where a single instance of the software runs on a server, serving multiple tenants.

Approach 2 : Multiple instances database

with this approach all the problems of first approach will be solved but the only problem with this approach is scalability.

Algorithm Efficiency : Merge sort vs Insertion sort

Algorithm Efficiency : Merge sort vs Insertion sort

Importance of Algorithm Efficiency :

Let us learn how an algorithm efficiency matters a lot ? We will analyse this by taking some interesting experiment as an example. Before that let us know what are the efficiencies of both the algorithm

Insertion sort :

 The average and worst case efficiency of merge sort is (C1) O(n2)

Merge Sort :

 The average and worst case efficiency of merge sort is (C2) O(nlog(n)) 

But let us analyse the efficiency with an experiment :

Experiment :

Let us take a faster computer , Computer A running insertion sort and a slower computer running merge sort.

They each must sort an array of one million numbers. Considering the following factors

  • Computer A executes one billion instructions per second
  • Computer B executes ten million instructions per second
  • Computer A is 100 times faster than Computer B in raw computing power
  • To make the difference even more dramatic , suppose that the world’s craftiest programmer writes insertion sort in machine level language for Computer A and resulting code requires 2n2 instructions to sort n numbers ( 2 is constant c1)
  • Merge sort  will be developed by an average programmer using high-level language with an efficient compiler with a resulting code 50nlog(n) instructions ( 50 is constant c2)

With the above assumptions , to sort one million numbers

Time taken by Insertion Sort in Computer A ( Faster computer ) :
( 2 X (106)2 Instructions ) / 109 instructions/second = 2000 seconds,

Time taken by Merge Sort in Computer B ( Slower Computer ) :
(50 X 106 lg(106) Instructions) / 107 instructions/second = 100 seconds,
This experiment shows even with slower computer (100 times slower) the best algorithm gives best result compared to faster computer running less efficient algorithm.

Computer B runs 20 times faster than Computer A, even though Computer A is 100 times faster than Computer B.

This proves that even though the underlying hardware is low end, an efficient algorithm performs much better, one very good example for this is Android vs iOS 🙂

Even though android smart phones are very high end , very good RAM and processor, they perform less compared to iPhone which has less RAM and less speed processor
Reference : Introduction to algorithms by Thomas H. Cormen 
http://www.flipkart.com/introduction-algorithms-english-3rd/p/itmdwxyrafdburzg

Neurons to Networks…

From Neurons to Networks

I was just trying to understand how can I use a graph theory to understand or analyse human brain and connections within it. I found an interesting video here. It will ignite an interest within you and a new connections will be created in your brain as you start watching 🙂

 

 

Graph Theory, Matrices – A Realtime example

Observe the matrix given below 

Adjacent Matrix

Adjacent Matrix

 

The above Matrix shows all zero at diagonal. 

Let me draw a graph for this ,

Directed Graph

Directed Graph

 

Assume that A, B and C are entities in database , Say Person entity.

A – Ram , B – Suma, C – Prema

Ram – Posted 
 Hello ….
Suma – Commented
  Idiot 🙂 …
Ram – Replied
  You Idiot …
Prema – commented
  See every one call you as idiot 🙂
 
Directed Graph

Directed Graph

 
Hold a moment … Does the above graph is correct ?
Observe what is changed in below graph
Un-Directed Graph

Un-Directed Graph

 

It is not mandatory that only A has to comment B ! , Even B can comment A .

So the first graph shown  is a directed graph and it is wrong , It should be undirected graph.

Now assume that how a facebook keeps track of connected friends ? Mutual Friends ? how big is the graph of facebook ?

The intention of this article is , to teach you guys how a Matrix concept is used to represent a graph, and how a graph theory is used in realtime to represent a social networking site like facebook.

Now understand why one should learn Graph Theory and Matrices

Let us have a look into facebook DB and Big data
Total Monthly Active users – 1,310,000,000
Total Mobile users  – 680,000,000
Every 20 minutes on Facebook
Links shared –  1 million
Friend Requests – 2 million
Messages sent – 3 million
http://www.statisticbrain.com/facebook-statistics/